Benzodiazepines List

What are Benzodiazepines?

Benzodiazepines, or benzo’s, are widely prescribed for various conditions, particularly insomnia, anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and even alcohol withdrawal. According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) [1], Benzodiazepines act on specific receptors in the brain, called gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A) receptors. Benzodiazepines attach to these receptors and make the nerves in the brain less sensitive to stimulation, which has a calming effect. Benzodiazepines slow down the central nervous system and may cause sleepiness and a relaxed mood. 

Benzo addiction is more common than you may think; it is available for sale on the street. Taking too much of this drug, mainly the benzodiazepines list below, can be dangerous, and mixing it with alcohol or other substances can be fatal. Left untreated, abusing these drugs can negatively impact your relationships, career, and physical and emotional health. If you or your loved one is struggling with benzodiazepines abuse or addiction, you should consider that they are very addictive. Also, dependence can develop in as little as a month of use. Therefore, benzodiazepine detox is recommended.

Benzodiazepines are widely prescribed. Five of these drugs, as mentioned on the benzodiazepines list below — alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), temazepam (Restoril), and lorazepam (Ativan)— are listed among the top 100 most commonly prescribed medications, which also makes them the most widely abused prescription drugs. The benzodiazepines list mentioned is available in prescription pills, syrup, and injectable preparation. It is taken orally, crushed, and snorted. Street names include Benzos, Downers, Nerve Pills, Tranks. Benzodiazepines are controlled in Schedule IV of the Controlled Substances Act [2].

benzodiazepines list
Benzodiazepines enter breast milk and can cause lethargy and weight loss in the newborn. Therefore, they should not be used in nursing mothers.

Benzodiazepines List of Substance Interactions

No. Combining the benzodiazepines list below with alcohol is very dangerous. Someone who drinks alcohol while taking this medicine will feel the effects of alcohol faster. It’s not safe to drink alcohol or take other drugs that have similar effects on the central nervous system (CNS) at the same time because these substances or drugs interact with oral benzodiazepines by causing additional respiratory and central nervous system depression. Respiratory depression can lead to breathing that’s inadequate for supplying oxygen to the body. This can cause death. Examples of these drugs and products that increase sedative side effects or the risk of respiratory depression from benzodiazepines include:

Painkillers called opioids also cause respiratory depression, for example:

Sedatives (for example, insomnia medicine) and other medicine that cause sedation, for example:

  • Eszopiclone (Lunesta)
  • Zolpidem (Ambien, ZolpiMist)
  • Intermezzo
  • Zaleplon (Sonata)
  • Phenobarbital

Benzodiazepines List of Addiction Symptoms and Side Effects

When someone becomes addicted to benzos, it is usually because of the relaxing euphoria, or high, connected with consuming large quantities of these prescription drugs. Sedatives are generally very habit-forming. Those who take benzos, whether as prescribed or for nonmedical reasons, can encounter different side effects. However, individuals who struggle with benzodiazepine addiction or abuse are more likely to experience side effects, especially at higher doses.

Recognizing the signs and symptoms of someone struggling with benzo addiction can be confusing. Nevertheless, there are a variety of symptoms that can reveal that someone is misusing these drugs. It’s important to take notice of the signs before the symptoms become life-threatening.

Benzodiazepines List of Physical Symptoms

  • Nausea/vomiting
  • Fainting
  • Diarrhea
  • Respiratory Depression
  • Tremors
  • Seizures
  • Slowed heart rate
  • Slurred speech
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Slower reflexes
  • Impaired coordination
  • Lightheadedness
  • Pale, cold skin

Benzodiazepines List of Psychological Symptoms

  • Irritability
  • Amnesia
  • Depression
  • Mood swings
  • Cognitive dysfunction
  • Suicidal thoughts

Benzodiazepines List of Signs of Overdose

The most significant danger of using benzodiazepines and a reason to get into a benzodiazepine detox program is overdosing. With a capacity for developing a tolerance, the longer someone takes benzodiazepines, the higher dosage they will need to take to obtain the desired effect. As a result, the greater the risk of overdosing. Moreover, benzos being a sedative can cause breathing to slow. Therefore, less oxygen enters the lungs to the brain and the rest of the body. Overdose can cause the breathing to slow down to the point of being fatal.

benzodiazepines list
Detox should be done in a substance abuse treatment facility, not at home. The most important thing that can be done at home is to recognize that there may be a problem and to seek help.

Deadly overdoses in addicted persons often involve the combination of alcohol and benzodiazepines, with or without opiates. Moreover, pharmacokinetic drug interactions may happen. For example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may increase diazepam (Valium) blood levels, and nefazodone (Serzone) may increase alprazolam (Xanax) levels through hepatic enzyme inhibition, leading to increased sedative-hypnotic effects or side effects.

Signs of overdose from these drugs may include blue fingernails, double vision, slurred speech, impaired coordination, and slowed or stopped breathing, among others. An overdose is a medical emergency. If an overdose is suspected, contact emergency medical support services immediately.

Benzodiazepines List – Commonly Available in the U.S.

Xanax

Generic Name: alprazolam

Brand Name: Niravam, Xanax, Xanax XR

Common Uses: anxiety, panic disorders

Xanax (alprazolam) is a fast-acting benzodiazepine medication. That means it brings about a significant change in the brain in a short period. As a result, it is one of the most addictive benzodiazepine medications on the market today. The risks are higher in people who take the doses of 4 mg/day for longer than 12 weeks, however, anyone who abuses the drug could be at risk for addiction [3].

Common short-term side effects of Xanax include:

  • Drowsiness
  • Confusion
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Slurred speech
  • Lightheadedness
  • Impaired memory
  • Low blood pressure
  • Slowed breathing

Librax

Generic Name: chlordiazepoxide

Brand Name: Librax

Common Uses; anxiety, alcohol withdrawal

Librax is a medication typically for the treatment of anxiety disorders. However, this medication can be habit-forming and presents a risk of addiction and abuse. Misuse of Librax happens when used in larger doses, more often, or for longer courses than directed by a doctor [4].

Common side effects may include:

  • Severe drowsiness
  • Dark urine
  • Unusual changes in mood or behavior
  • Problems with balance or muscle movement
  • Confusion, excitement, anger, or feeling restless
  • Thoughts of suicide or hurting yourself
  • Fever, chills
  • Upper stomach pain
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes)

Valium

Generic Name: diazepam

Brand Name: Valium

Common Uses: anxiety, sedation, alcohol withdrawal, muscle spasm, seizure

Valium is the brand name for diazepam, which is used to treat seizures and muscle spasms. When prescribed, it’s meant to be taken daily. However, people who start taking more Valium than recommended are at risk of addiction. Valium is especially dangerous when mixed with other central nervous system depressants like alcohol.

Side effects of Valium abuse include:

  • Drowsiness
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness
  • Blurred vision
  • Seizures
  • Skin rash
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Confusion
  • Slowed breathing

Klonopin

Generic Name: clonazepam

Brand Name: Klonopin

Common Uses: seizure, panic disorder, neuralgia (nerve pain)

Klonopin has a high potential for abuse and addiction – even when prescribed to treat a medical condition. It is long-acting benzo. Consequently, it takes longer to feel its full effects. Once it leaves the body, a person can experience severe and potentially life-threatening withdrawal symptoms.

When someone abuses Klonopin or takes doses that are too high or uses it for long periods, they may exhibit symptoms such as:

  • Fainting
  • Dizziness
  • Vertigo
  • Numbness
  • Impaired cognition
  • Confusion
  • Slow reaction time
  • Impaired judgment
  • Reduced libido

Onfi

Generic Name: clobazam

Brand Name: Onfi

Common Uses: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, adjunct (seizures)

Clobazam is a benzodiazepine that is used in combination with other medications to treat seizures caused by Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a severe form of childhood epilepsy that also causes behavior and developmental problems.

Common side effects may include:

  • Constipation
  • Drowsiness, lack of energy
  • Fever
  • Drooling

Tranxene

Generic Name: clorazepate

Brand Name: Tranxene T-Tab

Common Uses: anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, partial seizures.

This drug can slow or stop your breathing, especially if you have recently used an opioid medication, alcohol, or other drugs that can slow your breathing. Some people have thoughts about suicide while taking clorazepate. Stay alert to changes in your mood or symptoms. Report any new or worsening symptoms to your doctor.

Common side effects may include:

  • Dizziness and Drowsiness
  • Dry mouth
  • Blurred vision
  • Upset stomach

Ativan

Generic Name: lorazepam

Brand Name: Ativan

Common Uses: anxiety, insomnia (short-term use), seizures, sedation.

Ativan is a medication for anxiety disorders, depression, and panic attacks. However, it is only for short-term use. Due to its highly addictive property, Ativan should only be used under the supervision of a doctor.

Most severe side effects associated with Ativan use occur with high doses or when the drug is mixed with alcohol.

Side effects include:

  • Seizures
  • Respiratory depression
  • Excessive sedation
  • Memory impairment
  • Tremors
  • Loss of consciousness

Restoril

Generic Name: temazepam

Brand Name: Restoril

Common Uses: insomnia (short-term use)

Temazepam affects chemicals in the brain that may be unbalanced in people with sleep problems (insomnia). This drug works by slowing down the central nervous system (brain), causing drowsiness which helps patients fall asleep.

Side effects of Valium abuse include:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Swelling of the face, lips, and tongue
  • Headache
  • Drowsiness
  • Feeling nervous

Benzodiazepines List of Withdrawal Symptoms

The withdrawal symptoms of benzos are emotionally and physically uncomfortable. Moreover, it can even be life-threatening if the user stops “cold turkey.” Users with a history of taking higher doses or taking the substance for a long time have the worst withdrawal symptoms.

Benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms are highly variable and often come and go. They may range in severity and frequency throughout all phases of the withdrawal process. In an unmanaged situation, benzodiazepine withdrawal becomes much more severe.

Benzodiazepines List of Rebound Symptoms

The most common benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms, often called “rebound” symptoms, usually show within one to four days of discontinuing use, depending on the benzo used, the amount of use, and the repetition of use. This may include anxiety, insomnia, and stress. As the body regulates through the benzodiazepine detox process, these symptoms will likely subside or reduce [5].

Find the Right Treatment Plan at We Level Up NJ

Individuals who struggle with benzos abuse and addiction, whether the addiction is to benzos alone or as part of a pattern of polydrug abuse, need professional help. If a person attempts to withdraw from benzos without medical assistance, they could experience life-threatening withdrawal symptoms. They are also more likely to relapse without medical and social support, and that can also be physically dangerous.

If you or someone you love is struggling with an addiction to benzodiazepines list mentioned, get them the safest help they need and deserve. We Level Up NJ offers a safe and medically-assisted Benzo Addiction Detox Program. Contact our team at We Level Up Florida today!

benzodiazepine list
Stop the abuse! Reach out at We Level Up NJ

Sources

[1] NCBI – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470159/

[2] DEA – https://www.dea.gov/sites/default/files/2020-06/Benzodiazepenes-2020_1.pdf

[3] NCBI – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5846112/

[4] FDA – https://www.fda.gov/media/142368/download

[5] We Level UpBenzo Addiction