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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Guide. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults. FAS Signs. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Face. FAS Personality Symptoms. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Causes & Treatment.

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a lifelong condition that impacts both children and adults. The long-term consequences of FAS include physical, mental and behavioral abnormalities. Continue to read more about fetal alcohol syndrome in adults.


Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a severe condition that arises from alcohol exposure during pregnancy, causing brain damage, growth issues, and intellectual challenges in children. FAS can harm an unborn child’s growth and brain development, creating lasting consequences. FAS-affected children may exhibit small eye sockets, a smooth area between the nose and upper lip, and flattened cheekbones. Children born with FASD can show problems, like as facial, wide-set, narrow eyes, growth abnormalities, nervous system, medical, behavioral, educational, and social problems. The damage can extend to visible areas of the body, such as the eyes, lips, fingers, and toes. Discover how to identify fetal alcohol syndrome in adults (FASD).

Meaning

FASD Meaning 

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults (FASD) is a range of effects that can occur in a baby when their mother consumes alcohol during pregnancy. The most noticeable disorder is known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by abnormal facial features, below-average height and weight, and central nervous system issues.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Conditions

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Conditions Table

Another condition less dramatic than Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults is Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (PFAS). PFAS is also diagnosed when at least two criteria from the above conditions are met. Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) only affects the brain or central nervous system. Lastly, Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) primarily affects an individual’s behavior.

Here is a table outlining the various conditions that fall under Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD):

FASD ConditionDescription
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)Characterized by physical abnormalities, growth deficiency, cognitive impairments, and facial features
Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS)Similar to FAS but with a milder range of physical abnormalities and facial features
Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND)Impacts neurodevelopment, leading to cognitive, behavioral, and learning difficulties
Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD)Primarily affects physical development, leading to malformations and other structural abnormalities
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults can be directed into three different components from FAS to pFAS to ARND.

Read on to discover the facts about fetal alcohol syndrome in adults (FASD).

Meaning of Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS)

Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS) Meaning

Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS) is a condition that falls under the umbrella of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). It is similar to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) but with a milder range of physical abnormalities and facial features. Here are some critical points about pFAS:

  • Physical features: Individuals with pFAS may exhibit some, but not all, of the physical abnormalities associated with FAS. These can include facial abnormalities such as a thin upper lip, a flattened philtrum (the vertical groove between the nose and upper lip), and specific patterns of ear and eye abnormalities.
  • Growth deficiency: Similar to FAS, individuals with pFAS may experience slower-than-average growth before and after birth.
  • Cognitive impairments: People with pFAS may have cognitive impairments such as intellectual disability, learning difficulties, and problems with memory and attention.
  • Behavioral issues: Behavioral problems, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and difficulties with self-control, are commonly observed in individuals with pFAS.
  • Associated conditions: Individuals with pFAS may also have co-occurring conditions such as sensory processing difficulties, mental health challenges, and speech and language delays.

Individuals with pFAS may have varying levels of impairment and presentation. A comprehensive assessment by healthcare professionals is crucial for an accurate diagnosis and to determine appropriate interventions and support. Continue to learn more about fetal alcohol syndrome in adults (FASD).

Meaning of Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder

Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) is a condition within the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) spectrum. It is characterized by neurodevelopmental impairments resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. Here are some critical points about ARND:

  • Neurodevelopmental impairments: ARND primarily affects the central nervous system and can lead to cognitive, behavioral, and learning difficulties. These impairments may include problems with attention, memory, executive functions, language and communication, and motor coordination skills.
  • Lack of physical abnormalities: Unlike Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS), ARND is not associated with distinctive facial abnormalities or growth deficiency. The effects of alcohol exposure are primarily neurological rather than physical.
  • Behavioral challenges: Individuals with ARND may exhibit behavioral problems such as impulsivity, hyperactivity, emotional regulation difficulties, and social interaction.
  • Learning difficulties: ARND can affect an individual’s learning ability and may result in difficulties with academic performance, comprehension, problem-solving, and adaptive functioning.
  • Variability of symptoms: The specific symptoms and severity of ARND can vary widely among individuals, as alcohol’s impact on the developing brain is complex and can affect different areas and functions to varying degrees.

Diagnosing ARND requires a comprehensive evaluation by healthcare professionals who specialize in FASD. Early intervention, education, and supportive services can help individuals with ARND reach their full potential. Continue to learn more about fetal alcohol syndrome in adults (FASD).

In Adults

What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults?

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in adults disorder (FASD) is caused by exposure to alcohol during pregnancy and can result in various facial, physical, and cognitive abnormalities. Alcoholism can harm your baby at any stage during pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages before you even know you are pregnant. Drinking during pregnancy can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs).

Once established, the effects of FAS are permanent, persisting into adulthood and remaining throughout a person’s life. The telltale signs of FAS in adults often manifest as distinctive facial and physical features, including short stature, a small head, and a thin upper lip. Continue for more Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Face adults symptoms, signs, features, and treatment options.

Face

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Face Adults

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Face adults may exhibit certain physical features due to prenatal alcohol exposure. Not all individuals with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in adults have these features, and the severity can vary.

Below is a table comparing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Face adults features seen in individuals with FAS:

Facial FeatureDescription
Smooth PhiltrumAbsence of the vertical groove between the upper lip and the nose, giving a flattened appearance
Thin Vermilion BorderThin upper lip with a smooth transition between the lip and the surrounding skin
Small Palpebral FissuresNarrow opening of the eyes, resulting in smaller than average eye width
Epicanthal FoldsFolds of skin covering the inner corner of the eyes that gives the appearance of a narrow eye opening
Flat Nasal BridgeAbsence of a defined bridge in the nasal area, causing a flattened appearance
Fetal alcohol syndrome face adults sufferers should receive appropriate support and interventions tailored to their needs. Early identification of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in adults and comprehensive intervention can help mitigate the impact of FAS and promote optimal development and functioning in adulthood.

Common Long-Term Effects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in adults’ physical characteristics may include visible fetal alcohol syndrome face abnormalities along with:

  1. Abnormal facial features include a thin upper lip, a smooth or flattened philtrum (the area between the nose and upper lip), and small eye openings.
  2. Growth deficits: Individuals with FAS may experience reduced height, weight, and overall size compared to their peers.
  3. Microcephaly: Some individuals with FAS may have a smaller-than-average head size, which can be associated with developmental delays.
  4. Abnormalities in joint structure: People with FAS may have joint abnormalities that affect their mobility and range of motion.
  5. A smooth or missing middle phalanx of the fifth finger: This refers to the absence or flattening of the middle bone of the little finger.

In addition to the physical characteristics, adults with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) may experience various secondary issues and challenges. These can include:

  1. Intellectual and learning disabilities: Many individuals with FAS have cognitive impairments, which can manifest as intellectual disabilities and difficulties in academic and intellectual tasks. Learning challenges may include memory, attention, problem-solving, and executive functioning problems.
  2. Behavioral and social difficulties: People with FAS may exhibit behavioral problems and have impulse control, hyperactivity, and aggression challenges. They often struggle with social skills, such as understanding social cues, making and maintaining relationships, and managing emotions.
  3. Mental health issues: Individuals with FAS are more likely to experience mental health conditions like anxiety, depression, ADHD, and mood disorders. These conditions can further impact their overall well-being and everyday functioning.
  4. Speech and language delays: Many individuals with FAS have speech and language development delays. Communication difficulties can range from impaired articulation, limited vocabulary, and difficulties understanding or processing language.
  5. Motor skill deficits: Problems with fine and gross motor skills can be expected. This can result in problems with coordination, balance, and dexterity, impacting activities such as handwriting, sports, and overall physical performance.

FAS is a spectrum disorder, and each individual may display a unique combination of features. Individuals with FAS may also experience cognitive, behavioral, and neurological impairments that can affect their overall development and functioning.

Continue for more Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Face adults pictures, symptoms, signs, features, and treatment options.

Symptoms

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Symptoms

Individuals affected with severe fetal alcohol syndrome adults (FASD) have a high rate of psychiatric and personality disorders, problems with addiction, and troubles with the law. They are also less likely to get a college degree, have stable employment, or live independently.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Symptoms Chart

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Symptoms Table

Common symptoms and characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in adults include the following:

Symptoms and CharacteristicsDescription
Abnormal facial features (e.g., thin upper lip, smooth or flattened philtrum, small eye openings)Physical characteristics associated with FAS
Growth deficitsReduced height, weight, and overall size compared to peers
MicrocephalySmaller than average head size, potentially associated with developmental delays
Abnormalities in joint structureJoint abnormalities affecting mobility and range of motion
Smooth or missing middle phalanx of the fifth fingerAbsence or flattening of the middle bone in the little finger
Intellectual and learning disabilitiesCognitive impairments, intellectual disabilities, learning challenges
Behavioral and social difficultiesBehavioral problems, impulse control issues, social skills deficits
Mental health issuesHigher likelihood of anxiety, depression, ADHD, mood disorders
Speech and language delaysDelays in speech and language development, communication difficulties
Motor skill deficitsProblems with coordination, balance, fine and gross motor skills
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in adults symptoms can vary in severity and presentation among individuals with FAS. Each person may have a unique combination of symptoms, and additional medical conditions or complications may be present.

Early diagnosis and intervention, as well as appropriate support and accommodations, are crucial for individuals with FAS to manage these symptoms and improve their overall quality of life. Read more to uncover the truths about fetal alcohol syndrome in adults (FASD).

FASD Identification Chart

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Executive Function Deficits

Detecting Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders can be challenging. Early and accurate identification is the key to obtaining the proper educational and mental support. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is just one type of FASD, and distinguishing others can be even more difficult, especially if the mother’s alcohol exposure is unknown. Many symptoms that could prompt an assessment for FAS are not apparent at birth but become more noticeable later. Behavioral symptoms are more prevalent than facial characteristics in FASD.

Here is a table outlining the adverse effects on executive functions associated with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) to help you detect FASD:

Executive FunctionAdverse Effects
InhibitionImpulsivity, difficulty controlling behavior
Working MemoryForgetfulness, difficulties retaining and using information
Cognitive FlexibilityRigidity in thinking, difficulty adapting to new situations
Planning and OrganizingPoor organization skills, difficulty with time management
Problem SolvingDifficulty finding solutions, poor decision-making skills
AttentionInattentiveness, easily distracted
Self-monitoringLack of self-awareness, difficulty recognizing mistakes

Read on to learn about fetal alcohol syndrome in adults (FASD).

Signs

Signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults

Signs of fetal alcohol syndrome in adults include physical problems plus issues with behavior and learning. Fetal alcohol syndrome adult disorders occur along a severity index. Thus, this disorder ranges in the quantity of alcohol drinking during pregnancy. The more alcohol consumed, the greater the severity of the illness.

Signs and characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in adults table:

Signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in AdultsDescription
Abnormal facial features (e.g., thin upper lip, smooth or flattened philtrum, small eye openings)Distinctive physical characteristics associated with FAS
Growth deficitsReduced height, weight, and overall size compared to peers
Neurodevelopmental disabilitiesIntellectual and learning disabilities, cognitive impairments
Behavioral and social challengesImpulsivity, hyperactivity, difficulty with social skills and relationships
Mental health disordersIncreased risk of anxiety, depression, ADHD, and mood disorders
Speech and language delaysDelayed speech and language development, communication difficulties
Motor skill impairmentsFine and gross motor coordination deficits
Sensory processing issuesSensory sensitivities or difficulties in processing sensory information
Executive functioning difficultiesProblems with organization, planning, problem-solving, and self-regulation
Memory and attention deficitsChallenges with memory retention and attention span
Signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in adults can vary in severity and presentation among individuals with FAS. Each person may exhibit a unique combination of signs, and additional medical conditions or complications may be present.

Early signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in adults and diagnosis can lead to appropriate support and interventions. Treatment can significantly contribute to managing signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in adults and enhancing overall well-being and functioning in adults with FAS.

Continue for more Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Face Adults symptoms, indications, features, and treatment options.

What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)?

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a lifelong condition that occurs when alcohol is consumed during pregnancy. This seemingly harmless act can devastate the baby’s development, leading to physical and mental defects. FAS is the most severe form of a group of disorders known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs).

Discover what fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is and how it affects a developing baby when a pregnant woman consumes alcohol. Even small amounts of alcohol can pose a risk to your developing fetus. For many adults, fetal alcohol syndrome face aberrations are among the first signs of FAS.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) vs Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs)

Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can drastically impact the development of a fetus, manifesting in various ways. These effects can range from mild to severe, resulting in a spectrum of signs and symptoms known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). At one end of the spectrum lies the most severe condition, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). However, other conditions fall under the umbrella of FASDs, each with distinct characteristics:

Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS): Individuals with pFAS exhibit some features of FAS, such as facial changes; however, they do not display all the associated symptoms.

Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND): Those with ARND may experience impulsiveness, inattentiveness, and challenges in judgment and school performance.

Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD): ARBD refers to physical abnormalities affecting the heart, eyes, skeletal system, ears, and kidneys.

Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Individuals with ND-PAE have been exposed to significant amounts of alcohol as fetuses. They struggle with daily tasks, exhibit severe behavior issues like tantrums, and face difficulties in social settings. Additionally, they encounter challenges with their cognitive abilities, including thinking and memory.

Understand the differences between Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, shedding light on the vast range of effects caused by prenatal alcohol exposure.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Face in Adults Symptoms Chart

The most severe fetal alcohol syndrome adults have facial anomalies, including wide-set and narrow eyes, development, maturing, and growth issues, plus nervous system abnormalities.

Only a few affected adults have FASD facial features, small eye openings, thin upper lips, flat grooves under the nose, or developmental delays linked to prenatal alcohol abuse. These characteristics may diminish with age.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Face Irregularities Infographics

Facial signs of fetal alcohol syndrome in adults can be observed in both children and adults with FAS.

Facial signs of fetal alcohol syndrome in adults can be observed in both children and adults with FAS and may include:

  1. Small eye openings: fetal alcohol syndrome eyes refer to individuals with FAS with a small distance between the inside corners of the eyes, making their eyes appear widely spaced apart.
  2. Smooth philtrum: The philtrum is the groove between the nose and upper lip. The groove may be thin or smooth in individuals with FAS rather than having the usual grooves and ridges.
  3. Thin upper lip: The upper lip may be thin or flat in individuals with FAS, sometimes with an indistinct border between the lip and skin.
  4. Flattened midface: Individuals with FAS may have a flattened or underdeveloped midface, leading to an unbalanced or asymmetrical appearance.

While the facial features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome may be present in some individuals, not all people with FAS have these features. Moreover, FAS features do not always indicate the presence of FAS. A diagnosis of FAS typically requires a thorough evaluation by a qualified medical professional.

Physical Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Symptoms In Adults

Fetal alcohol syndrome symptoms in adults could include the following:

  • Abnormal facial features, such as a smooth ridge between the nose and upper lip
  • Small head and brain size
  • Shorter-than-average height
  • Low body weight
  • Poor coordination
  • Sleep and sucking problems as a baby
  • Vision or hearing problems
  • Problems with the heart, kidneys, or bones

Mental Health Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Symptoms In Adults

Mental Health Fetal alcohol syndrome symptoms in adults include the following:

  • Hyperactive behavior
  • Difficulty with attention and memory
  • Learning disabilities and difficulty in school
  • Speech and language delays
  • Intellectual disability or low IQ
  • Poor reasoning and judgment skills
  • Depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorders.
There is no known safe amount of alcohol during pregnancy. Therefore, to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome in adults, you should not drink alcohol while pregnant or when you might get pregnant.
There is no known safe amount of alcohol during pregnancy. Therefore, to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome in adults, you should not drink alcohol while pregnant or when you might get pregnant.

Discover the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome and why it often goes undiagnosed.

How Common is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)?

Experts estimate that less than 2 cases of FASD occur per 1,000 live births in the United States. When considering the broader range of disorders within FASD, this frequency may increase to 1 to 5 out of every 100 children in the U.S. and Western Europe.

A recent study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in 2019 revealed that 1 in 9 pregnant individuals reported consuming alcohol within a 30-day timeframe.

Continue to uncover Fetal Alcohol Syndrome’s impact on individuals and society. Learn more about fetal alcohol syndrome face oddities.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Infographics

Fetal alcohol syndrome symptoms in adults can result in severe adverse effects. Most common fetal alcohol syndrome face anomalies can be observed in FAS patients.

Based on early detection and medical support, life expectancy for adults with fetal alcohol syndrome symptoms can decrease.  People with FAS are projected to live to about 34 years (95% CI: 31–37 years), or only about 42%, compared to the general population's life expectancy.  
Based on early detection and medical support, life expectancy for adults with fetal alcohol syndrome symptoms can decrease. People with FAS are projected to live to about 34 years (95% CI: 31–37 years), or only about 42%, compared to the general population’s life expectancy.  

Source: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) (nih.gov)

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FASD Behavior Checklist 

The Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Behavior Checklist is a screening tool for identifying potential behavioral symptoms of FASD in children and adolescents. This checklist is not diagnostic but lists red flags that may warrant further evaluation or screening for FASD. Here are some examples of behaviors that may be included in the FASD checklist:

  1. Difficulty with impulse control and self-regulation
  2. Difficulty with memory and learning
  3. Poor social skills and interpersonal relationships
  4. Difficulty with problem-solving and decision-making
  5. Aggressive and challenging behavior
  6. Inappropriate sexual behavior
  7. Anxiety and mood swings
  8. Hyperactive and or impulsive behavior
  9. Difficulty following rules and limits
  10. Poor judgment
  11. Prone to outbursts and tantrums
  12. Trouble with executive functioning
  13. Troubling substance use or misuse, such as alcohol or drugs

One or more of these behaviors does not necessarily mean the child or adolescent has FASD. However, if a child or adolescent exhibits multiple behaviors listed on the FASD Behavior Checklist, it may be prudent to seek further evaluation or screening for FASD. The checklist can be used with fetal alcohol syndrome face and related physical symptoms to assess FAS vs. FASD.

Causes of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults 

The cause of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a woman drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy. This includes not only “hard liquor” but also beer and wine. Whatever alcohol is in a pregnant woman’s bloodstream will pass through the umbilical cord to the developing baby (fetus). The fetus cannot process alcohol through the liver or other organs, so it is exposed to the same amount of alcohol in the mother’s bloodstream for extended periods.

Alcohol can interfere with the normal development of the fetus, particularly the brain and central nervous system. This occurs in any of the following ways:

  • Alcohol can kill cells in different parts of the fetus, causing abnormal physical development.
  • Alcohol interferes with how nerve cells develop and travel to form different brain parts and their functioning.
  • Alcohol constricts blood vessels and slows blood flow to the placenta (the fluid-filled sac in which the fetus develops). This causes a shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the fetus.
  • Toxic byproducts are produced when the body processes alcohol. These may then concentrate on and damage the brain cells of the fetus.

Alcohol can pass through the placenta and affect the development of the fetus. FAS can damage developing cells and tissues, including the brain and nervous system, leading to various physical, cognitive, and behavioral problems.

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Common Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Adult Symptoms

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) can affect an individual’s physical and psychological development. Many adults affected by FAS in childhood may struggle with specific health issues as they age, including facial characteristics indicative of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Typical facial features associated with fetal alcohol syndrome in adults include:

EYES

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Eyes Features

Alcohol fetal syndrome eyes symptoms can vary and include multiple signs.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Eyes Symptoms Include:

  1. Small eye openings: Individuals with FAS may have smaller eye openings compared to the average size.
  2. Epicanthal folds: Some individuals with FAS may have extra folds of skin that partially cover the inner corners of the eyes, known as epicanthal folds.
  3. Short palpebral fissures: The length of the eyelid opening, called palpebral fissures, may be shorter than usual.
  4. Almond-shaped or narrow eyes: The shape of the eyes in FAS can appear elongated, giving them an almond-like or narrow appearance.
  5. Upward-slanting eyes: The eyes may have an upward slant, where the outer corners of the eyes are higher than the inner corners.

It’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis, as they can assess the individual’s specific characteristics and provide personalized guidance and support.

FACIAL

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Facial Features

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) can affect an individual’s physical and psychological development. Many adults affected by FAS in childhood may struggle with specific health issues as they age, including facial characteristics indicative of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).

Alcohol Fetal Syndrome Face Characteristics

Common facial fetal alcohol syndrome facial features include:

  • Small and narrow eyes
  • Thin upper lip
  • Smooth philtrum (the groove between the nose and the upper lip)
  • Flat midface area
  • An upturned nose or nasal bridge that is flattened
  • Elongated head shape with a flat back of the head

These facial signs of fetal alcohol syndrome can be complex for those affected, particularly if they are embarrassed or ashamed of their appearance. Remember that this is not something to be ashamed of and that many people with the condition still lead healthy and fulfilling lives.

Stigma of Facial Signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 

It is vital to remember that although FAS may cause unique facial characteristics, it does not have to define or hinder the individual’s life. With the proper care and support, individuals with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome can still find joy and fulfillment.

By taking the necessary steps to recognize and manage Fetal Alcohol Syndrome properly, those affected can lead everyday lives despite their unique facial traits. With the right support and lifestyle changes, individuals living with FASD can still enjoy healthy relationships, meaningful work, and overall happiness.

The facial features and signs associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) can also include the following:

  1. Epicanthal folds: Extra folds of skin may be present, partially covering the inner corners of the eyes.
  2. Small eye openings: The distance between the inner and outer corners may decrease, leading to smaller openings.
  3. Short palpebral fissures: The eyelid opening (palpebral fissure) length may be shorter than average.

The severity of these facial features can vary among individuals affected by FAS and FASD. Additionally, individuals with FAS and FASD may also exhibit other physical, neurological, and developmental signs

Remember: You are not alone! Seeking help from medical professionals and organizations specializing in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a great way to ensure you or your loved one have the necessary resources to live a fulfilled life.

Take the time to learn more about FAS facial features and other signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome today, so you can be better prepared to help those facing FASD. Individuals living with FAS can still lead happy lives with the right support.

Talking to a healthcare professional is essential if you or someone you know is experiencing any facial features associated with FAS. They can provide invaluable guidance in understanding and managing the condition. There are also support groups that specialize in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome that may be able to offer additional assistance. Do not be afraid to reach out and ask for help!

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Adults Face Impact

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome adults face characteristics that can interfere with many aspects of daily living. The facial characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in adults may interfere with social interactions, self-esteem, and overall well-being. Some ways in which these facial characteristics may impact individuals include:

  1. Self-image and self-esteem: The unique facial features associated with FAS can contribute to feelings of self-consciousness and lower self-esteem. Individuals may feel different or struggle with accepting their appearance, leading to challenges in confidence and self-worth.
  2. Social interactions and relationships: The distinct facial characteristics may elicit questions or attention from others, potentially affecting how individuals with FAS interact in social settings. It can lead to unwanted scrutiny, teasing, or misunderstanding, possibly impacting the ability to form and maintain relationships.
  3. Emotional and psychological well-being: The physical features of FAS can contribute to emotional distress and psychological challenges. Individuals may experience increased vulnerability to anxiety, depression, and feelings of isolation due to the social and emotional difficulties associated with their appearance.
  4. Employment and educational opportunities: In some cases, the facial characteristics associated with FAS may affect employment prospects or educational experiences. Prejudice or bias based on appearance can limit opportunities or create obstacles in particular fields or settings.

Supportive interventions, such as counseling, support groups, and education, can help individuals with FAS develop coping strategies, enhance self-acceptance, and overcome challenges related to their facial characteristics. Society must promote understanding and inclusivity, ensuring that individuals with FAS have equal opportunities and access to resources.

HANDS

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Hands Features

In individuals with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), certain characteristic features or abnormalities may be seen in the hands. These can include:

  1. Small hands: Individuals with FAS may have hands that are smaller than average for their age and sex.
  2. Short fingers: The fingers may appear shorter and have reduced length compared to typical hand proportions.
  3. Smooth fingertips: The fingertips may be smooth, lacking normal ridges and texture.
  4. Joint abnormalities: There may be joint abnormalities or limited range of motion in the fingers or hands.
  5. Single transverse palmar crease: Some individuals with FAS may have a single crease that crosses the palm rather than the usual two separate creases.

Not all individuals with FAS will have all of these hand characteristics, and the presence and severity of these features can vary. A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is essential for an accurate diagnosis and to assess any associated difficulties or health concerns.

EARS

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Ears Features

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) can be associated with certain characteristic features or abnormalities in the ears. These can include:

  1. Low-set ears: The ears may appear lower on the head than typical.
  2. Malformed or unusual shape: The shape of the ears may appear different from the average, such as being smaller, narrower, or more irregular.
  3. Absence or underdevelopment of earlobes: Some individuals with FAS may have absent or underdeveloped earlobes.
  4. Fold abnormalities: There may be abnormalities or differences in the folds of the ear, such as changes in the shape or position of the helix (top) or antihelix (inner rim).
  5. Thickened or overfolded helix: The helix, or top rim of the ear, may appear thicker or have excessive folds.

Not all individuals with FAS will have all of these ear characteristics, and the presence and severity of these features can vary. Additionally, these characteristics alone are insufficient to diagnose FAS, and a comprehensive evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary for an accurate diagnosis and assessment of associated difficulties or health concerns.

Secondary Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Symptoms in Adults

In addition to the primary symptoms of FAS, affected individuals may develop secondary conditions that can further impact their health and well-being. Some examples of secondary conditions of FAS in adults can include:

  1. Mental health issues: Adults with FAS may be more likely than their peers to experience mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, addiction, and suicidal ideation.
    • Depression affects 44% of adults with FAS.
    • Psychotic symptoms affect 40%.
    • Anxiety affects 20%.
    • Bipolar disorder affects 20%.
  2. Unemployment and financial instability: Due to cognitive and behavioral difficulties associated with FAS, affected adults may struggle to maintain employment or experience financial instability.
    • 87% of individuals with FAS do not have a regular job.
    • 70% are unemployed.
  3. Addiction and legal problems: Adults with FAS may be more likely to engage in risky behaviors and may struggle to understand the consequences of their actions, which, in turn, can lead to legal problems or involvement with the criminal justice system.
    • 60% are impacted by alcohol or drug dependence.
  4. Social isolation: Adults with FAS may struggle with social skills, making it challenging to form and maintain meaningful relationships with peers or access social support.
    • 80% need help with their daily activities.
    • 66% live in an assisted living or institutional environment.
  5. Chronic health conditions: Adults with FAS may be at higher risk for certain chronic health conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease than their peers.

Secondary conditions of FAS can vary widely depending on the individual, and not all adults with FAS will develop these complications. However, early diagnosis and appropriate intervention can help minimize the impact of FAS on individuals’ health and well-being and increase the likelihood of positive outcomes. If you or a loved one may be affected by FAS, seeking qualified medical and mental health support is essential.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Symptoms Vs Infants Vs Childhood

Unraveling the mystery of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders can be challenging. While some cases can be diagnosed right after birth, identifying FASD can also become apparent during childhood or early adulthood. These disorders can manifest as subtle social or intellectual concerns, birth defects, and growth abnormalities during pregnancy.

Chart of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Symptoms vs. Infants vs. Childhood

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Symptoms vs. Infants vs. Childhood Table

Here is a comparison table of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in adults (FAS), childhood, and infant symptoms:

SymptomsAdults with FASChildhood with FASInfants with FAS
Facial abnormalitiesThin upper lip, flattened philtrum (groove between nose and upper lip), small eye openingsSmooth philtrum, thin upper lip, small eye openingsSmooth philtrum, thin upper lip, small eye openings
Growth deficienciesStunted growth, smaller body sizeSlower growth, below-average height and weight compared to peersSlower growth, below-average height and weight compared to peers
Cognitive impairmentsIntellectual disabilities, learning difficulties, poor problem-solving skills, challenges with memory, attention, and executive functionsCognitive and developmental delays, learning disabilities, poor impulse control, attention deficits, difficulties with language, speech, and social interactionsCognitive and developmental delays, learning difficulties, delayed milestones, language and speech difficulties, poor impulse control
Behavioral problemsImpulsivity, poor self-control, difficulty with social interactions, increased risk of mental health conditionsHyperactivity, attention deficits, emotional instability, difficulty adapting to changes in routine and environment, poor impulse controlHyperactivity, attention deficits, emotional instability, difficulty adapting to changes in routine and environment
Physical health issuesHigher likelihood of physical health problems such as heart defects, kidney abnormalities, vision or hearing impairments, and skeletal issuesHeart defects, kidney anomalies, hearing impairments, vision and hearing problems, skeletal issuesHeart defects, kidney anomalies, hearing impairments, vision problems

Recognizing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Infants

Infants Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Symptoms

Discover the telltale signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) symptoms in infants:

  • Distinctive facial features like a smooth ridge between the nose and upper lip, a thin upper lip, and small eyes.
  • Below average body weight.
  • Short stature.
  • Challenges in sleeping and sucking.
  • Reduced head size.
  • Potential issues with vision or hearing.
Recognizing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Childhood

Childhood Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Symptoms

Unveiling the Long-term Symptoms of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in childhood:

  • Speech and language development delays.
  • Challenges in concentration and limited attention span.
  • Blurring of the line between reality and fantasy.
  • Overflowing hyperactivity.
  • Learning disabilities.
  • Decreased IQ.
  • Lack of coordination.
  • Impaired reasoning and judgment skills.
  • Subpar academic performance.
  • Weak short-term memory.

When Can FAS Be Detected In A Child?

Discovering if your child has fetal alcohol syndrome can be determined in a few ways. A healthcare professional may be able to diagnose a newborn with fetal alcohol syndrome based on their small size and distinct physical characteristics. However, diagnosing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders can be challenging. FASD can manifest during childhood or early adulthood with mild social or intellectual issues, or it can be evident during pregnancy through birth defects and growth complications. To determine a diagnosis, various tests and assessments are conducted.

If you have consumed any amount of alcohol while pregnant, it is crucial to inform your healthcare provider and your baby’s pediatrician. They can assist you in planning for your child’s future.

Diagnosing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults

Diagnosing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is no easy task. No direct test is available, and pregnant individuals may not fully disclose their alcohol consumption history during pregnancy. However, pediatric healthcare providers can often identify FAS based on certain factors, including:

  1. History of alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy.
  2. Physical signs such as unique facial features (smooth connection between nose and upper lip, thin upper lip, and small eyes).
  3. Small size at birth and ongoing throughout childhood.
  4. Emotional and behavioral issues like difficulty concentrating, hyperactivity, and poor judgment.

The symptoms of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults (FAS) can sometimes resemble those of other disorders, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and Williams syndrome.

Ryan Zofay forming a circle and hugging friends.

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Celebrities

Understanding the hidden struggles of celebrities who influence global change and raise awareness for critical issues. These famous individuals face their health battles despite being placed on social pedestals. From fighting against FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome), our Chicago rehab sheds light on the dangers of alcohol abuse during pregnancy. Join us in spreading awareness and understanding the importance of responsible choices.

Unveiling Celebrities with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

While some effects of FAS may not be readily apparent even close up, it’s a reality that numerous celebrities live with this condition. Many manage it through medication or surgeries, while others exhibit minimal or no apparent signs.

Join us on this journey as we reveal unexpected celebrities who have FAS, shedding light on a lesser-known aspect of their lives.

Bernie Sanders (Famous Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Adult politician)

Introducing Bernie Sanders: A Political Powerhouse and Advocate

Bernie Sanders, a renowned American politician and activist, has dedicated his life to serving the United States politically. From 1991 to 2007, he represented Vermont as a U.S. representative and currently holds the junior United States Senator role.

Born on September 8th, 1941, in Brooklyn, New York City, Sanders has faced numerous health challenges, including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), gout, hernias, diverticulitis, and a cyst on his vocal cords.

Sanders’ FAS was finally recognized due to specific characteristics such as a lack of impulse control, small eyes, and poor social skills – all attributed to his mother’s excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

Driven by his personal experience, Sanders actively supports FAS organizations and advocates for alcohol treatment centers. He urges his supporters, especially pregnant individuals, to seek alcohol addiction treatment to prevent their children from experiencing fetal alcohol syndrome.

Join Bernie Sanders in his mission to bring awareness, support, and treatment to those affected by FAS, and together, let’s make a difference!

Reese Witherspoon (Famous Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Adult actor)

Reese Witherspoon: Overcoming Adversity with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

You may be surprised to learn that Hollywood star Reese Witherspoon has battled fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Despite the challenges posed by this condition, Witherspoon’s talent and determination have propelled her to success in movies like The Man in the Moon and Legally Blonde.

Born on March 22nd, 1976, Witherspoon’s upbringing was marred by her mother’s heavy drinking during pregnancy, a common factor among other celebrities on our list with FAS. As a result, she exhibits physical characteristics such as a thin upper lip, a malformed skull, and learning difficulties typical of FAS. Along with these challenges, she has also grappled with mood swings and struggles with personal hygiene.

However, Witherspoon’s story is one of resilience and grit. She refused to let her condition define her and pursued her dreams in the face of adversity. Her journey inspires and proves that determination can overcome even the most challenging obstacles.

Peter Bowers (Famous Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Adult music DJ)

Peter Bowers: Overcoming Fetal Alcohol Syndrome to Become a World-Renowned DJ

In a revealing interview with BBC, the renowned DJ Peter Bowers opened up about his struggles with learning difficulties and loneliness. He bravely shared his journey of living with fetal alcohol syndrome, caused by his mother’s heavy drinking during pregnancy.

Despite facing challenges such as learning difficulties and physical characteristics common among those with FAS, such as small eyes and a thin upper lip, Bowers maintains a positive outlook and harbors no resentment towards his mother.

What makes Bowers’ story truly remarkable is how he triumphed over the impact of FAS to become one of the world’s most popular DJs. His resilience and talent have propelled him to the top of his field, proving that one’s circumstances do not dictate their potential for success.

Joaquin Phoenix (Famous Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Adult actor)

Joaquin Phoenix: From Actor to Activist, a Remarkable Journey

Discover the intriguing life story of Joaquin Phoenix, the acclaimed American actor, producer, and activist. Born on October 28, 1974, Phoenix faced an uphill battle. Growing up in a religious family plagued by alcohol abuse, he overcame adversity to become a stellar performer.

Dive deeper into Phoenix’s compelling tale, and you’ll uncover a visible reminder of his past. A scar across his face, a testament to his challenges before entering the world. This mark is a sign of a microform cleft lip, a condition often associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).

Join us as we explore the extraordinary life of Joaquin Phoenix, shining a light on the courage and resilience that have made him an inspiration to many.

Join us as we explore the extraordinary life of Joaquin Phoenix, shining a light on the courage and resilience that have made him an inspiration to many.

Some famous people with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome have chosen to come out and share their stories. Some have become advocates for raising awareness and supporting those impacted by the condition. While they may not be widely known celebrities traditionally, they are influential in their advocacy work. One example is Jodee Kulp, an influential FASD education, support, and awareness advocate. She has written several books and actively speaks and trains on FASD-related topics.

By sharing their stories and experiences, Famous Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Adults can help spread awareness and understanding of FASD, support, and advocate for those affected by the condition.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Treatment

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe type of FASD. Fetal alcohol syndrome symptoms in adults last a lifetime. There is no cure for fetal alcohol syndrome in adults, but treatments can help manage the symptoms. These include medicines to help with FASD in adults symptoms, medical care for health problems, behavior and education therapy, and parent training. A good treatment plan is specific to the issues. It should include close monitoring, follow-ups, and changes when needed and provide:

  • Medicines targeted at easing some symptoms of FAS, like depression and anxiety.
  • Mental health therapy to help with both behavioral and educational progress.
  • Family, parent, and caregiver training.

FAS is a preventable condition, and women who are pregnant or may become pregnant should avoid drinking alcohol. There is no safe amount or safe time to drink alcohol during pregnancy. If you are pregnant and struggling with alcohol use, seeking help as soon as possible is necessary to reduce the risk of FAS and other complications. Treatment and support options are available, so don’t hesitate to contact your healthcare provider, a support group, or a trusted friend or family member for assistance.

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Statistics

In a 2022 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), CDC investigators discovered that nearly 14% (or 1 in 7) of pregnant women reported drinking, while about 5% (or 1 in 20) reported binge drinking in the last 30 days. Pregnant women who encountered frequent mental distress (14 or more days of poor mental health in the past 30 days) and those who did not have a regular healthcare provider were more likely to report alcohol use.

This MMWR report highlights the prevalence of alcohol use among pregnant people in the United States. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that pregnant women abstain from alcohol due to its risks to fetal development and pregnancy outcomes, including miscarriage, stillbirth, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

The report emphasizes the need for healthcare providers to screen pregnant patients for alcohol use and provide appropriate interventions, such as referral to addiction treatment and supportive services. It also highlights the need for public health campaigns to educate the public about the risks of alcohol use during pregnancy and to promote healthy behaviors and access to healthcare.

The finding that pregnant women experiencing frequent mental distress are more likely to report alcohol use underscores the importance of addressing mental health issues during pregnancy and providing appropriate support and treatment.

Ultimately, this MMWR report serves as a reminder that alcohol use during pregnancy is a significant public health concern. Efforts must be taken to ensure the health and well-being of pregnant people and their fetuses.

Moreover, using medical and other records, CDC studies have identified about one infant with FAS for every 1,000 live births in some regions of the United States. The most recent CDC study analyzed medical and other records and found FAS in 0.3 out of 1,000 children from 7 to 9 years of age.


34 Years

Depending on early diagnosis and support, life expectancies can increase. However, on average, people with fetal alcohol syndrome are estimated to live 34 years.

Source: CDC

1 in 1,000

Using medical and other records, CDC studies have identified about 1 infant with FAS for every 1,000 live births in some regions of the United States.

Source: CDC

40,000

Experts estimate that approximately 40,000 babies in the United States may be born with fetal alcohol syndrome yearly.

Source: CDC


Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults

Fact Sheet

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a lifelong condition that impacts both children and adults. FAS is usually diagnosed in children but can be diagnosed in older individuals as well. The long-term consequences of FAS include physical, mental and behavioral abnormalities.


Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages before you even know you are pregnant. Drinking during pregnancy can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with FASD can have a mix of problems, such as medical, behavioral, educational, and social problems. The kinds of problems they have depend on which type of FASD they have. The problems could include :

  • Abnormal facial features, such as a smooth ridge between the nose and upper lip
  • Small head size
  • Shorter-than-average height
  • Low body weight
  • Poor coordination
  • Hyperactive behavior
  • Difficulty with attention and memory
  • Learning disabilities and difficulty in school
  • Speech and language delays
  • Intellectual disability or low IQ
  • Poor reasoning and judgment skills
  • Sleep and sucking problems as a baby
  • Vision or hearing problems
  • Problems with the heart, kidneys, or bones

Kids with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Symptoms

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is caused by exposure to alcohol during pregnancy and can result in a wide range of physical, cognitive, and behavioral problems in affected children. Some common symptoms of FAS in childhood can include:

  1. Delayed growth and development: Children with FAS may have a smaller-than-average head circumference (microcephaly), low birth weight, and shorter height than their peers.
  2. Facial abnormalities: Children with FAS may have distinct facial features, including small eye openings (hypotelorism), a thin upper lip, a smooth philtrum (the groove between the nose and upper lip), and a flattened midface.
  3. Learning difficulties and academic underachievement: Children with FAS may struggle with academic tasks and fall behind in school. They may also struggle with memory, attention, and decision-making abilities.
  4. Behavioral problems: Children with FAS may struggle with impulsivity, hyperactivity, and mood swings. They may also have difficulty with social skills and struggle to make friends.
  5. Impaired coordination and motor skills: Children with FAS may have problems with coordination and fine motor skills, making it difficult to perform tasks such as writing or buttoning clothing.

If you suspect your child may be struggling with symptoms of FAS, seeking a qualified medical professional for diagnosis and treatment is crucial. While FAS cannot be cured, early intervention and appropriate treatment can significantly improve outcomes and help children with FAS live fulfilling lives.

Prevalence of FASDs

CDC studies have uncovered a startling reality: 1 in every 1,000 live births is affected by Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Recent surveys of school-aged children revealed higher rates, with 6 to 9 out of each thousand afflicted. A broader estimation found that FASDs may impact as many as 5 percent of all US and Western European schoolchildren – an alarming statistic.

Cost of FASDs

Each individual with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) brings an estimated staggering cost of $2 million to society, and the collective price for FASDs across America amounts to a whopping $4 billion yearly. When considering additional disabilities, including profound intellectual disability, the total cost skyrockets even further.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Face Adults Features

Fetal alcohol syndrome faces adult features caused by alcohol abuse during pregnancy. Fetal alcohol syndrome in adults can exhibit a spectrum of physical and intellectual disabilities. FAS is associated with a distinct set of facial features that may include:

  1. A small head girth.
  2. Small, narrow eye openings.
  3. A thin upper lip.
  4. The smooth and flattened groove between the nose and upper lip.
  5. A shorter than average distance between the base of the nose and the upper lip.

These physical characteristics, also known as “facial dysmorphisms,” are not always present in babies born with FAS. Some babies with FAS may have a more subtle facial appearance without these features.

It’s vital to note that FAS is preventable, and avoiding alcohol consumption during pregnancy is the best way to prevent FAS and other alcohol-related birth defects. Pregnant women who struggle with alcohol use are encouraged to seek help from a healthcare professional to receive appropriate treatment and support.

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow eyes, growth problems, and nervous system abnormalities.

FASDs last a lifetime. There is no cure for FASDs, but treatments can help. These include medicines to help with symptoms, medical care for health problems, behavior and education therapy, and parent training. A good treatment plan is specific to the child’s problems. It should include close monitoring, follow-ups, and changes when needed.

There is no known safe amount of alcohol during pregnancy. To prevent FASDs, you should not drink alcohol while pregnant or when you might get pregnant.

Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in Adults

Diagnosing FASD can be tricky because there is no medical test, like a blood test. A healthcare provider will make a diagnosis by looking at the child’s signs and symptoms and asking whether the mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.

Healthcare providers can diagnose FAS in adults by evaluating physical, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms. Some steps that healthcare providers may take to diagnose FAS in adults include:

  1. Reviewing medical history: Healthcare providers may review the individual’s medical history and prenatal history, including any known or suspected exposure to alcohol during pregnancy.
  2. Physical exam: Providers may perform a physical exam to detect any physical features that are common in individuals with FAS, such as facial abnormalities, shortened stature, or low birth weight.
  3. Cognitive and behavioral assessment: Healthcare providers may administer cognitive and behavioral assessments to evaluate memory, attention, language skills, decision-making, and other cognitive skills affected by FAS.
  4. Diagnostic criteria: Healthcare providers may use diagnostic criteria, such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) or The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Diagnostic and Prevention Network’s Diagnostic Guidelines, to determine if an individual meets the criteria for an FAS diagnosis.

Remembering that FAS is a complex disorder that can affect individuals differently is essential. There is currently no cure for FAS, but early intervention and appropriate treatment can significantly improve outcomes and help individuals with FAS live fulfilling lives.

Alcohol Use among Pregnant Women in the United States

Recent research has revealed alarmingly high rates of alcohol consumption among pregnant people in the United States. A CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report from 2022 showed that 14% (1 out of every 7) reported drinking, with 5% admitting to binge drinking within a 30-day period; meanwhile, an American Journal of Preventive Medicine report concluded these numbers rose slightly over seven years from 2011 – 2018. Risk factors for such behavior include mental distress and lack of access to healthcare services.

Alcohol Use Screening and Counseling

Despite the potential risks of drinking during pregnancy, US healthcare providers may miss critical opportunities to advise expecting mothers on alcohol use. Unsurprisingly, a 2020 CDC report found that just 38% of adults were asked about binge drinking in their last two routine checkups – with even fewer being advised by their doctors to reduce or quit altogether. These findings point towards an urgent need for better integration and utilization of strategies addressing these missed chances that will help pregnant women make healthier choices regarding alcohol consumption.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Face Adults Images

The above chart on “Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults” Shows the facial signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
The above chart on “Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults” Shows the facial signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Fetal alcohol syndrome face peculiarities can be observable in some cases.

There is no one specific “Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Face” that is present in all individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), as the facial features can vary depending on the individual and the severity of their condition. It’s also worth noting that the physical characteristics associated with FASD can be subtle. It may not always be apparent that an individual has the condition just by looking at them.

However, some adults with FASD may exhibit facial features similar to those seen in infants and children with FASD, such as a thin upper lip, a smooth philtrum, and narrow eye openings. These features may be more subtle in adults due to changes in facial structure as they age.

It’s important to note that FASD is a complex condition not solely defined by physical characteristics. Individuals with FASD may also experience developmental, cognitive, and behavioral difficulties that can impact their daily functioning and quality of life. If you suspect that you or a loved one may have FASD, seeking professional evaluation and support from a healthcare professional specializing in FASD is essential.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Infographic

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in adults is caused by exposure to alcohol during fetal development. It can cause many physical, cognitive, and behavioral problems that last a lifetime. FAS in adults can lead to difficulties with learning, memory, decision-making, impulse control, and social skills. Raising awareness of FAS in adults is important because it is a preventable condition affecting millions worldwide.

The above chart on “Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults” Shows the physical signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
The above chart on “Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults” Shows the physical signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

Embed the above “Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults” Infographic to your Website. This infographic is provided by the We Level Up Addiction Treatment Center team. To use the above infographics, you agree to link back and attribute its source and owner at https://welevelupnj.com/addiction/fetal-alcohol-syndrome-in-adults/

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults image link: https://welevelupnj.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/04/Fetal-Alcohol-Syndrome-in-Adults-1-1030×1030.jpg

Recognizing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders can be 
difficult. Early and accurate identification is key to receiving 
appropriate educational and mental support. Fetal Alcohol 
Syndrome (FAS) is just one FASD; others may be more difficult 
to distinguish, particularly when the mother’s exposure to 
alcohol is unknown.
The above chart on “Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Personality” Shows the behavioral signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

Embed the above “Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Personality” Infographic to your Website. This infographic is provided by the We Level Up Addiction Treatment Center team. To use the above infographics, you agree to link back and attribute its source and owner at https://welevelupnj.com/addiction/fetal-alcohol-syndrome-in-adults/

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Personality image link: https://welevelupnj.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/04/Fetal-Alcohol-Syndrome-in-Adults-Personality-1030×1030.jpg

Signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults

If you or someone you know is exhibiting symptoms of FASD in adults, seek medical attention immediately. While some of the symptoms of alcohol fetal syndrome in adults can be treated, the disorder is permanent. Commonly noted FASD symptoms in adults are as follows:

  • Fetal alcohol syndrome face anomalies like:
    • Having a small head
    • Abnormal facial features such as small eyes, thin upper lip
  • Height and weight that is below average
  • Hyperactivity
  • Lack of focus
  • Poor coordination
  • Delay in development
  • Problems with vision
  • Poor judgment
  • Intellectual and learning disabilities
  • Heart and kidney Problems
  • Mood swings
  • Deformed limbs or fingers

Adults born with fetal alcohol syndrome vary in their presentation of symptoms depending on how much alcohol their mother consumed during pregnancy.  This is why diagnosing FASD in less severe cases can be challenging. But even with minimal FASD symptoms adults present, adults will struggle in various ways that complicate their everyday lives.

There are no exact statistics on how many people have fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). It can sometimes be challenging to diagnose a person with FASD because of the various symptoms and spectrum of severity. Also, not all people who drink while pregnant feel comfortable talking to their healthcare provider. This means that some people with mild symptoms of FASD and mild fetal alcohol syndrome in adults might never be diagnosed.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Infographic

Remembering that FAS is a complex disorder that can have diverse effects on people is crucial. Although there is currently no cure for FAS, individuals with the condition can lead happy lives with the help of early intervention and the proper treatment.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Face in Adults Features

The characteristic facial features associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) tend to be more pronounced in children. However, certain facial features may still be visible in adults with FAS.

Fetal alcohol syndrome face features in adults pictures example:

The above chart on “Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults” Shows the facial signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
The above chart on “Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults” Shows the facial signs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

Embed the above “Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults” Infographic to your Website. This infographic is provided by the We Level Up Addiction Treatment Center team. To use the above infographics, you agree to link back and attribute its source and owner at https://welevelupnj.com/addiction/fetal-alcohol-syndrome-in-adults/

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults image link: https://welevelupnj.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/04/Fetal-Alcohol-Syndrome-in-Adults–1030×1030.jpg

The features of fetal alcohol syndrome face in adults can be easily detectable in some cases. Source, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Pictures Source: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Face in Adults Characteristics

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was first defined in 1973 as a condition characterized by pre and postnatal growth deficiencies, facial abnormalities, and central nervous system defects. The pattern of facial defects resulting from ethanol exposure during development primarily affects the midline of the face, altering the morphology of the eyes, nose, and lips [3]. Ethanol damage to cranial neural crest cells (CNCC) early in embryonic development is responsible for these minor midline abnormalities.

A linear relationship exists between ethanol exposure and the severity of expression of ethanol-induced defects. Although the intensity, duration, and timing of prenatal ethanol exposure can dramatically affect the manifestation of these abnormalities, the general trend is that as exposure to ethanol increases, the expression of abnormal facial traits increases.

A largely unaddressed fact is that fetal alcohol syndrome in adults could signify a person's high risk of developing a drug or alcohol use disorder. 
A largely unaddressed fact is that fetal alcohol syndrome in adults could signify a person’s high risk of developing a drug or alcohol use disorder. 

Diagnostic characteristics typical of FAS in adults include:

  • Fetal alcohol syndrome face irregularities. Smaller eye openings (palpebral fissures, the region between the upper and lower eyelid), at times, accompanied by folds of skin (epicanthal folds) at the corners of the eyes that stretch the upper lids taut and create a more oval shape.
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome adults feature a general shortening of the nose, often accompanied by a lowered nasal bridge. Hypoplastic (underdeveloped) expression of the philtrum also occurs, resulting in the lessened expression or absence of the bilateral raised ridges of skin that connect the nasal septum to the upper lip’s bow.
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome in adults may include an overall narrowing of the forehead, shortened midface, and underdevelopment of the chin, which also usually accompany these ethanol-induced abnormalities. These defects are generally more pronounced in infants and children and tend to become less noticeable as growth through adolescence and adulthood alters facial morphology.
  • What are the features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Adults face? The pattern of facial defects resulting from ethanol exposure during development primarily affects the midline of the face, altering the morphology of the eyes, nose, and lips. Ethanol damage to cranial neural crest cells (CNCC) early in embryonic development is responsible for these minor midline abnormalities.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Awareness Month

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Awareness Month is observed in September to raise awareness of the risks of alcohol use during pregnancy and its lifelong effects on individuals and their families. The goal is to educate people about the risks of drinking during pregnancy and encourage women to prevent FAS in their children. Prevention strategies include avoiding drinking during pregnancy, seeking prenatal care, and improving access to alcohol abuse treatment and support for women with alcohol use disorder.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Awareness Month

By raising awareness of FAS in adults, we can help to reduce stigma, improve diagnosis and treatment, and support individuals and families affected by this condition.

Many people with FAS in adulthood may struggle with mental health issues, addiction, and other challenges that make it difficult to lead fulfilling lives. Those with apparent fetal alcohol syndrome face abnormalities and similar conditions often face severe stigma.

Awareness efforts often focus on helping individuals with FAS get the support and resources they need to manage their symptoms and achieve their goals. This may involve developing specialized programs and services that cater to the unique needs of people with FAS, including educational programs, job training, and mental health services.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Awareness Month is an opportunity to promote research into the causes and treatment of this condition. Researchers are working to understand the underlying mechanisms of FAS better and develop more effective interventions to help affected individuals.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Awareness Month is an opportunity to promote research into the causes and treatment of this condition. Researchers are working to understand the underlying mechanisms of FAS better and develop more effective interventions to help affected individuals.

Source: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) (nih.gov)

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Awareness Month is also a reminder of the importance of supporting families affected by FAS. The impact of FAS can be far-reaching, and families may need help navigating the challenges of raising and supporting a child with FAS. Raising awareness of this condition and promoting research can help reduce the incidence of FAS and support affected individuals and families as they navigate the complex associated issues

Risk Factors of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome In Adults

The severity of alcohol effects on a fetus primarily depends on the following:

  • Quantity — How much a pregnant woman drinks per occasion?
  • Frequency — How often does a pregnant woman drink?
  • Timing — In what stage of pregnancy does a woman drink, and if she drinks heavily just as the fetus develops a particular feature or brain region

Other factors can also influence how prenatal alcohol exposure affects children. These include:​

Maternal Characteristics

Research demonstrates that children may be more affected by prenatal alcohol exposure if their mothers:

  • Have poor nutrition.
  • Had multiple pregnancies and births.
  • Have lower-than-average weight, height, and body mass index (BMI).
  • Smoke.
  • Are older.
  • Are you a member of a family of heavy drinkers?

Environmental Factors

Research demonstrates that children can be more affected by prenatal alcohol exposure if their mothers experience adverse living conditions and high stress levels. These may include social isolation, living in circumstances where alcohol misuse is common and accepted, and living in a community where resources for prenatal care are limited.

Genetics

The extent of fetal adult alcohol syndrome may depend on the mother’s genetic makeup, her child’s genetic makeup, and changes in gene activity caused by prenatal alcohol exposure.

Interventions

Researchers and clinicians have developed effective learning and behavioral interventions to help people with fetal alcohol syndrome[2]. For example, school-based interventions can help children with fetal alcohol syndrome learn more efficiently. School-based interventions may include specialized teaching strategies that provide a consistent routine and allow children to practice new skills repeatedly. Other promising interventions include:

  • Family support groups and classes to help parents better care for a child with fetal alcohol syndrome.
  • Nutritional supplements for pregnant women and postnatal supplements for their children.
  • Behavioral interventions for affected children include training in social skills, problem-solving, and personal safety.
The most profound effects of prenatal alcohol exposure or fetal alcohol syndrome in adults are brain damage and resulting behavioral and cognitive functioning impairments.
The most profound effects of prenatal alcohol exposure or fetal alcohol syndrome in adults are brain damage and resulting behavioral and cognitive functioning impairments.

Complications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 

Problem behaviors not present at birth that can result from having alcohol fetal syndrome adults (secondary disabilities) may include:

  • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Aggression, inappropriate social conduct, and breaking the rules and laws
  • Alcohol or drug misuse
  • Mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, or eating disorders
  • Problems staying in or completing school
  • Problems with independent living and employment
  • Inappropriate sexual behaviors
  • Early death by accident, homicide, or suicide

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Effects in Adults 

Fetal alcohol syndrome is a condition that can affect an individual far beyond infancy and childhood. Many people with FAS have difficulty due to the condition into adulthood and the rest of their lives. The physical effects of fetal alcohol syndrome are one of the adults’ most prominent FAS symptoms. For example, many people with adult fetal alcohol syndrome are smaller in stature and shorter than others due to development and growth problems caused by the condition. Not to mention more obvious signs like fetal alcohol syndrome face irregularities.

Additional physical effects of FAS that are apparent in adulthood may include:

  • Organ defects
  • Bone growth issues
  • Flattened philtrum (groove in the upper lip)
  • Smaller head circumference
  • Smaller than average eye openings
  • Small or absent palpebral fissures (the space between the corner of the eye closest to the nose)
  • Thinner upper lip
  • Low and short nose bridge
  • Flattened cheekbones
  • Small jaw

Some of these physical defects may be minor or even unnoticeable. However, some deformities in the facial area can signify brain damage in the individual. Knowing the fetal alcohol syndrome signs in adults can help you get treatment. Remember, you are not alone. Therapeutic and medical help can make all the difference in your life.

Detailed FAS Mental and Neurological Signs

Physical symptoms are not the only way fetal alcohol syndrome in adults can impact a person’s life. Many adults with fetal alcohol syndrome also experience significant mental and developmental problems.

Fetal alcohol syndrome in adults can directly damage the central nervous system, resulting in structural and neurological deficiencies. These deficiencies can cause several issues as the person develops into a child and adult. An adult with fetal alcohol syndrome requires specialized care to cope with their condition.

The mental effects that may occur as a result of FAS include:

  • Learning disabilities
  • Poor memory
  • Hyperactivity
  • Low IQ
  • Impulsivity
  • Poor social skills
  • Trouble completing tasks
  • Higher susceptibility to specific mental health disorders
  • Increased risk of drug and alcohol use and addiction
  • Mental retardation
  • Hearing disorders

Some individuals with fetal alcohol syndrome in adults may show no signs or symptoms of this condition after infancy. However, many people with FAS will struggle with this condition for the rest of their lives.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults’ Personality

According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) [4], adults with alcohol fetal syndrome (FASDs) have high psychiatric and personality disorders, problems with drugs and alcohol, and difficulties with the law. Crimes committed by an adult with FAS are often due to this condition’s developmental and mental effects. For example, a person may steal because he or she cannot understand the concept of ownership.

Other secondary effects that a person may experience due to FAS include trouble maintaining a steady job, difficulty finding and keeping housing, and money management. According to a study by the University of Washington, an estimated 79 percent of people with FAS had difficulty with steady employment.

Many individuals with fetal alcohol syndrome adult require specialized care to cope successfully with life. With help, many adults with FAS can lead productive and relatively independent lives.

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Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults

How to diagnose fetal alcohol syndrome in adults? Individuals are generally diagnosed with FAS in childhood. Adults can also be evaluated and diagnosed, although challenges include obtaining reliable alcohol exposure histories and changes in the physical phenotype. 

More research is necessary to define the physical phenotype in adulthood, but currently, the research suggests that microcephaly, a thin upper lip, and shortened stature are persistent features. In an adult who has not previously been evaluated for FASDs, these features could alert a healthcare provider that such an evaluation should be considered. 

No specific medical tests exist for FAS, so a diagnosis is usually made based on various factors. These include:

  • Fetal alcohol syndrome face abnormal features, such as a smooth philtrum.
  • Short stature
  • Low body weight
  • Central nervous system problems, such as a small head size
  • Issues with hyperactivity, attention, and coordination
  • Known alcohol intake by the mother during pregnancy

Long-Term Effects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults

The effects of FAS can be particularly challenging to navigate during adulthood when the person is expected to take care of him or herself. Adults who experience effects related to fetal alcohol exposure often need help as they try to find housing, employment, transportation, and daily life.

Unfortunately, many affected people will never receive the resources and support they need to succeed. According to a University of Washington study of people aged 6-51 with FAS, nearly 80% had employment problems. Moreover, over 60% of those over age 12 had legal troubles, and 35% had drug and alcohol use disorders.

As people with FAS reach adulthood, they and their caregivers face additional challenges. Specialized coaches and counselors may be required to help these individuals live happily and relatively independently. There are several secondary and long-term effects of fetal alcohol syndrome in adults, such as the following:

  • Mental health disorders
  • Unemployment
  • Homelessness
  • Disrupted academic success
  • Inability to live independently
  • Victimization
  • Difficulty raising their

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Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

When a woman drinks during pregnancy, the blood travels through her body and into the placenta to the developing fetus. Because the fetus’s body cannot break down alcohol as fast and efficiently as an adult, the alcohol will remain in their tiny bodies for much longer, which is believed to cause FAS in adults.

Women who consume excessive amounts of alcohol while pregnant increase the risk of their child having FAS, although no amount of alcohol use is considered safe. If a woman is pregnant, the only way to ensure fetal alcohol syndrome doesn’t develop is to abstain from alcohol consumption altogether.

The consequences of fetal alcohol syndrome in adults are lifelong and include mental, physical, and behavioral concerns.
The consequences of fetal alcohol syndrome in adults are lifelong and include mental, physical, and behavioral concerns.

No two people with FASDs are precisely alike. Treatment services for FASD in adults are most effective when they address a person’s specific impairments and build upon their strengths with the help of medical professionals from FASD treatment centers.

Treatment for Alcohol Abuse

Some individuals, depending on how profoundly they are affected by symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome in adults, who have a substance use disorder themselves, can receive treatment at a specialized facility such as We Level Up NJ. We offer a comprehensive approach to addiction treatment that includes evidence-based services, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, essential for recovery.

We employ highly skilled addiction professionals trained to provide clients with the resources and support they need to achieve abstinence and sustain long-term wellness and sobriety. For those with co-occurring mental health disorders, such as depression, we offer dual-diagnosis treatment programs to address both conditions simultaneously.

If you are suffering from addiction to drugs or alcohol, contact us today to discuss treatment options and find out how we can help you begin your journey to recovery – and guide you every step of the way!

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Top 5 Most Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What are the three types of fetal alcohol syndrome in adults?

    Depending on the features identified, the medical disorders labeled as FASD include Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (pFAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD), and neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE).

  2. What is fetal alcohol syndrome in adults called now?

    Alcohol use during pregnancy can interfere with the baby’s development, causing physical and mental defects. Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe condition within a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs).

  3. Can one drink cause fetal alcohol syndrome in adults?

    Even 1 or 2 drinks of alcohol can cause damage to the fetal brain. No amount of alcohol has been proven safe to drink during pregnancy. There is no known amount of alcohol that is safe during pregnancy.

  4. What is the life expectancy of fetal alcohol syndrome in adults?

    Depending on early diagnosis and support, life expectancies can increase. However, on average, people with FAS are estimated to live 34 years (95% CI: 31–37 years).

  5. Can you test for fetal alcohol syndrome in adults?

    Diagnosing FASD can be challenging because there is no medical test, like a blood test. The health care provider will make a diagnosis by looking at the person’s signs and symptoms and asking whether the mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. FASDs last a lifetime. There is no cure for FASDs, but treatments can help.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults How To Stop Drinking Video

If someone is struggling with alcohol addiction during pregnancy and needs help to stop drinking, here are some tips that may be helpful:

  1. Seek medical support: Talk to your healthcare provider about your alcohol use and ask for their support in stopping drinking. They may be able to provide resources or refer you to a specialist who can help.
  2. Enlist a support system: Let friends and family know that you are not drinking during pregnancy and ask for their support in helping you stay on track.
  3. Identify triggers: Recognize situations or people that trigger a desire to drink and avoid them as much as possible.
  4. Stay busy: Find healthy activities that do not involve drinking, such as exercise, yoga, or hobbies.
  5. Learn relaxation techniques: Stress and anxiety can increase the urge to drink, so developing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing or meditation may be helpful.
  6. Attend support groups: Consider joining a support group for people trying to stop drinking, such as Alcoholics Anonymous.
  7. Keep a journal: Write down your thoughts and feelings about alcohol use, and track your progress in abstaining from drinking.
  8. Reward yourself: Set small achievable goals, and reward yourself each time you meet them to stay motivated.
  9. Make a plan for social situations: If you attend social events where alcohol may be present, plan and bring your non-alcoholic beverages to enjoy.
  10. Remember the risks: Alcohol use during pregnancy can have severe consequences for both the mother and the baby. Keeping this in mind may help you stay motivated to stop drinking.

There is no safe level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and it is recommended that pregnant women abstain from drinking entirely.

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Search We Level Up NJ Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adults Topics & Resources
Sources

[1] Fetal Alcohol Spectrum DisordersU.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) (nih.gov). Fetal alcohol syndrome: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image.

[2] Fetal Alcohol Exposure – NIAAA/ National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

[3] Basics about FASDs – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

[4] Moore EM, Riley EP. What Happens When Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Become Adults? Curr Dev Disord Rep. 2015 Sep;2(3):219-227. DOI: 10.1007/s40474-015-0053-7. Epub 2015 Jun 24. PMID: 26543794; PMCID: PMC4629517.

[5] Detoxing From Drugs While Pregnant & Effective Treatment Options (welevelup.com)

[6] LaHood AJ, Kok SJ. Ethanol Toxicity. How Long Does Alcohol Withdrawal Last? [Updated 2022 Mar 18]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557381/

[7] Jung YC, Namkoong K. Alcohol: intoxication and poisoning – diagnosis and treatment. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;125:115-21. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-62619-6.00007-0. PMID: 25307571.

[8] Newman RK, Stobart Gallagher MA, Gomez AE. Alcohol Withdrawal. [Updated 2022 Aug 29]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441882/

[9] Huebner RB, Kantor LW. Advances in alcoholism treatment. Alcohol Res Health. 2011;33(4):295-9. PMID: 23580014; PMCID: PMC3860532.

[10] Witkiewitz K, Litten RZ, Leggio L. Advances in the science and treatment of alcohol use disorder. Sci Adv. 2019 Sep 25;5(9):eaax4043. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax4043. PMID: 31579824; PMCID: PMC6760932.